水与火
2017-09-22 publish
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人们曾经分别概括中西两种文化为“黄土地文化”与“海洋文化”,且通过对过去文献的研究发现,“水”与“火”可用来分别概括是中西哲学的核心,因此,如果说,“一多不分”与“一多二元”分别代表了中西文明发展的根本差别的话,那么,水与火则可以说分别代表了中西文化对真善美统一的不同认识,也形成了中西方不同个人行为模式,乃至上升到社会、国家上的差别。

 

一、中国传统哲学对“水”的认识

中国人历来把水作为世界的本原。中国最早关于世界本原的“五行说”,把水作为万物的本原。《尚书·洪范》说:“五行:一曰水,二曰火,三曰木,四曰金,五曰土。”五行之间虽有相生相克形成一个循环的关系,但从生成的角度而言,水却是第一个,“太一生水”。《洪范》的这个次序,为后来的思想家们所继承

中国古代的两位哲人—孔子和老子都是在对水的观察和解说中领悟到了“道”。儒家道家,一以柔弱为本,一以阳刚为上;一消极无为,一积极有为。但有意思的是两家都以“水”为自己所推崇的象征。道家以水为至柔,儒家却以水为阳刚。

人们欣赏水,也崇拜水。水的力量是最强大的。故水势不可逆,只可顺,可导。大禹治水是一个典型的例子。唐太宗以水比百姓,“水能载舟,亦能覆舟”。古人又说:“防民之口,甚于防川。”孙中山以水比世界大势,“世界潮流,浩浩荡荡,顺之者昌,逆之者亡。”这“潮流”二字,已经成为中国文化的一个重要概念,它体现的就是水的力量。现今,对社会问题和情势“宜疏导不宜堵塞”,已经成为当政者的一个共识。而这个共识隐含的前提就是水的隐喻。

这一传统衍生了中国哲学“一多不分”的思维模式,世界并非受“天”主宰,万物之间必有联系......更多请点击查看详情文档
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Roger T· Ames (Roger T.Ames)

Roger T. Ames was born in 1947 in Toronto, Canada. As a professor at the University of Hawaii, an advisor to Nishan Shengyuan Academy, Chairman of the World Association of Confucian Culture Studies and Vice Chairman of the International Confucian Association, he is an internationally famous expert in Sinology. He is a leading figure in Chinese & Western philosophy and is famous in China and abroad for his translation of books such as theAnalects of Confucius,Sun Tzu’s Art of War,Huainan Tzu andTao Te Ching He was the Chief Editor toPhilosophy of the Occident and Orientas well as theInternational Chinese Book Reviewand the author ofConfucian Philosophical Thinking,Thinking from the Han: Self, Truth, and Transcendence in Chinese and Western Culture,Anticipating China: Thinking Through the Narratives of Chinese and Western Culture,the Art of Rulership: A Study into Chinese Political ThoughtandDemocracy if the Dead: Dewey, Confucius and the Hope for Democracy in China. Roger T. Ames once received the guidance of Liu Dianjue and became proficient in classical Chinese, then to one of the most outstanding modern scholars of Classical Studies. In 2013, he was awarded the "Confucius Culture Award" by the 6th World Confucian Congress. Then he won the second "Huilin Prize Award" in 2016.…
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